Stars are mostly made of hydrogen and helium.
The Universe is 14.6 billion years old.
In a millionth of a millionth of a millionth of a millionth of a second space expanded by a million million million million times, during the first moments of the Big Bang.
In less than a millionth of a millionth of a millionth of a millionth of a second the universe expanded during the Big Bang from a size of an atom to the size of a baseball, or from the size of a golf ball to the size of Earth. This is faster than the speed of light.
Matter and antimatter particles destroy each other on contact. For every billion particles of antimatter that were created there were a billion and one particles of matter in the early universe, which could hint at how our matter dominated and existence came about.
First element to be created after the Big Bang was Hydrogen, then Helium and Lithium.
Proxima Centauri, the nearest star, is 25,000,000,000,000 miles away.
Proxima Centauri, is 4.2 Light Years away. The Voyager spacecraft left the solar system at 37,000 miles per hour. At that speed, it would take Voyager 80,000 years to reach Proxima Centauri.
The planet Earth is 149,597,890 km from the sun.
Earth’s volume is 1,083,206,916,846 km3.
Earth has a radius of 6,378.14 km.
Earth’s rotational period is 0.9973 days.
Earth’s orbit period is 1.00002 years.
The planet Jupiter is 778,412,020 km from the sun.
Jupiter’s volume is 1,431,281,810,739,360 km3.
Jupiter has a radius of 71,492 km.
Jupiter’s rotational period is 0.4135 days.
Jupiter’s orbit period is 11.8565 years.
Jupiter has 50 moons.
The planet Mars is 227,936,640 km from the sun.
Mars’s volume is 163,115,609,799 km3.
Mars has a radius of 3,397 km.
Mars’s rotational period is 1.026 days.
Mars’s orbit period is 1.8807 years.
Mars has 2 moons.
The planet Mercury is 57,909,175 km from the sun.
Mercury’s volume is 60,827,208,742 km3.
Mercury has a radius of 2,439.7 km.
Mercury’s rotational period is 58.646 days.
Mercury’s orbit period is 0.241 years.
Mercury has no moons.
The planet Neptune is 4,498,252,900 km from the sun.
Neptune’s volume is 62,525,703,987,421 km3.
Neptune has a radius of 24,764 km.
Neptune’s rotational period is 0.6713 days.
Neptune’s orbit period is 164.79 years.
Neptune has 13 moons.
The planet Saturn is 1,426,725,400 km from the sun.
Saturn’s volume is 827,129,915,150,897 km3.
Saturn has a radius of 60,268 km.
Saturn’s rotational period is 0.444 days.
Saturn’s orbit period is 29.4 years.
Saturn has 53 moons.
The planet Uranus is 2,870,972,200 km from the sun.
Uranus’s volume is 68,334,355,695,584 km3.
Uranus has a radius of 25,559 km.
Uranus’s rotational period is 17 hours 14 minutes 24 seconds.
Uranus’s orbit period is 84.02 years.
Uranus has 27 moons.
The planet Venus is 108,208,930 km from the sun.
Venus’s volume is 928,415,345,893 km3.
Venus has a radius of 6,051.8 km.
Venus’s rotational period is 243 days.
Venus’s orbit period is 0.615 years.
Venus has no moons.
Minerals are the materials from which rocks are made. More that 4,000 different kinds exist, each one a single chemical substance found naturally on Earth.
Quartz belongs to the silicate group of minerals, which makes up about 75 percent of Earth’s crust.
Of the 88 natural elements, only about 20 are found in the native state; that is, uncombined with other elements.
Sulfides are a large group of minerals, in which sulfur is combined with one or more metals.
Sulfosalts are group of about 200 mainly rare minerals.
When metallic elements combine with halogen elements, Halide minerals are formed.
Fossils are evidence of past life that has been buried and preserved in the rocks of Earth’s crust.
Earth’s atmosphere is 75 miles (120km) thick.
The Ozone layer, in the lower atmosphere, plays a vital role in protecting life because it absorbs harmful radiation such as ultra-violet light, which damages living cells. Before the ozone layer formed, life was confined to the seas, whose waters offered some protection against ultraviolet light.
Water forms over 50% of all living tissues.
Most rainfall is driven by evaporation from the oceans, which hold 97 % of Earth’s surface water.
There are 500 different kinds of rocks on Earth.
Rocks can be divided into three main categories:
1. Igneous Rocks: The cooling and solidification of molten rock produces crystalline igneous rocks.
2. Metamorphic Rocks: The application of heat and pressure to existing rocks deep within Earth’s crust can change their form and mineral composition, resulting in metamorphic rocks such as slate or marble.
3. Sedimentary Rocks: Layer of sand and dead animal bones constantly settle on see and river beds. After millennia buried under the weight of subsequent layers, and that of the water above them, these sediments compact and harden into rocks.
San Andreas Fault: Stretching some 810 miles (1300km) through California, this dramatic fault is the product of a transform boundary between the Pacific and North American plates, which slide against one another.
Every atom in your body was produced by Stars.
Our Galaxy, the Milky Way, is a barred spiral galaxy 100,000–120,000 light-years in diameter.
Our Galaxy, the Milky Way, contains 200–400 billion stars.
The rotational period of our Galaxy is about 200 million years at the position of the Sun.
Our Galaxy as a whole is moving at a velocity of 552 to 630 km per second, depending on the relative frame of reference.
Our Galaxy is estimated to be about 13.2 billion years old, nearly as old as the Universe.
A barred spiral galaxy is a spiral galaxy with a central bar-shaped structure composed of stars. Bars are found in approximately two-thirds of all spiral galaxies.
There are about 100 billion galaxies in the observable universe.
There are more stars in the Universe than grains of sand on Earth.
Sun is 4.6 billion years old.
In about 5 billion years Sun will expand to a red giant.
Sun is 92,960,000 miles away (149,600,000 km).
About one million Earths could fit inside the Sun.
The largest star ever found is 300 times bigger and 10 million times brighter than the Sun.
A Nebula is an interstellar cloud of dust, hydrogen, helium and other ionized gases. Nebula is where the Stars are born.
Fusion is the process that powers active stars.
Nuclear fusion is an atomic reaction that fuels stars. When Hydrogen atoms are heated up they speed up, some 1000 miles per second, smashing into each others creating a new element, Helium, and a small amount of pure energy.
The speed of light is 299,792,458 meters per second, or 670,616,629.3843951 miles per hour.
Light travels 7 times around the Earth in one second.
Speed of sound at sea level is 340.29 miles per second.
A light year is the distance that light travels in one year, which is 9,454,254,955,488 km.
Some stars are so far that it takes million and even billion years for the light to reach us. This means that we see them now the way they were million and billion years ago. Farther we look in space further in past we see.
The Sun is 8 light minutes away.
Next star to our Solar system is in the Alpha Centauri system, and is 4.5 light years away.
Every second, 600 million tons of hydrogen are converted into helium in the Sun’s core, generating 4 x 1027 Watts of energy. For the Sun, this process got going 4.6 billion years ago, and it has been generating energy this way every since.
Sun has another 7 billion years worth of fuel left.
Stars that have a lot of mass may end their lives as black holes or neutron stars. A low or medium mass star (with mass less than about 8 times the mass of our Sun) will become a white dwarf.
The Sun will only spend one billion years as a red giant, as opposed to the nearly 10 billion it spent busily burning hydrogen.
According to astronomer and author Frank Shu, "A sugar cube of neutron-star stuff on Earth would weigh as much as all of humanity!" Neutron stars can be observed as pulsars.
A white dwarf is what stars like the Sun become after they have exhausted their nuclear fuel. Near the end of its nuclear burning stage, this type of star expels most of its outer material, creating a planetary nebula. Only the hot core of the star remains. This core becomes a very hot white dwarf, with a temperature exceeding 100,000 Kelvin (99,727 Celsius).
A White Dwarf is 200,000 times denser than Earth.
A sugar cube size of a White dwarf is so dance it would fall right through the Earth.
A red giant is a star that has exhausted the primary supply of hydrogen fuel at its core and is now using another element such as helium as the fuel for its energy-producing thermonuclear fusion reactions. Hydrogen fusion continues outside the core and causes the star to expand dramatically, making it a giant. Expansion also cools the star's surface, which makes it appear red. Red giant stars are near the end of their lives, and die either in a supernova explosion, or more quietly as a planetary nebula. Both fates involve the expulsion of the star's outer layers, which leave behind the small, exposed core.
A typical red giant at the Sun's location would extend to roughly the earth's orbit.
When stars of about the Sun's mass stop with helium burning stage and collapse into white dwarfs about the size of the earth, expelling their outer layers in the process. Only the more massive stars play a significant role in manufacturing heavy elements.
In the very early universe, the only elements were hydrogen and helium. But since the formation of stars, lighter elements within the stars began fusing to create heavier elements, producing all the other naturally occurring elements.
The energy produced by fusion reactions prevents the star from collapsing under its own gravity.
The heaviest element created in a star by nuclear fusion reactions is iron. A large iron core eventually forms at the center. At this point, gravity becomes overwhelming, the core collapses, and an explosion occurs, during which outer layers of gas and heavy elements are ejected to space. Such explosions, called supernovas, occur about once a century in our galaxy. The energy created by supernovas produces nuclei heavier than iron. This process is known as supernova nucleosynthesis.
Britain’s Astronomer Royal Sir Martin Rees said, “We are literally the ashes of long dead stars.”
When you buy a party balloon that floats in air, it is filled with helium gas – most of which was created when the universe was only 3 minutes old!
Only about 90 of the 118 known elements occur naturally. The other 28 are man made.
The estimated number of stars in the universe—300,000,000,000,000,000,000,000, or 300 sextillion.
The earth's rotation is slowing at a rate of about 0.005 seconds per year.
The rate at which the earth is slowing today is higher than average because the present rate of spin is in resonance with the back-and-forth movement of the oceans.
Fossil rugose corals preserve daily and yearly growth patterns and show that the day was about 22 hours long 370 million years ago, in rough agreement with the 22.7 hours predicted from a constant rate of Earth’s slowing rotation.
Stars More Massive Than the Sun When the core runs out of hydrogen, these stars fuse helium into carbon just like the Sun. However, after the helium is gone, their mass is enough to fuse carbon into heavier elements such as oxygen, neon, silicon, magnesium, sulfur and iron. Once the core has turned to iron, it can burn no longer. The star collapses by its own gravity and the iron core heats up. The core becomes so tightly packed that protons and electrons merge to form neutrons. In less than a second, the iron core, which is about the size of the Earth, shrinks to a neutron core with a radius of about 6 miles (10 kilometers). The outer layers of the star fall inward on the neutron core, thereby crushing it further. The core heats to billions of degrees and explodes (supernova), thereby releasing large amounts of energy and material into space. The shock wave from the supernova can initiate star formation in other interstellar clouds. The remains of the core can form a neutron star or a black hole depending upon the mass of the original star.
Stars Like the Sun When the core runs out of hydrogen fuel, it will contract under the weight of gravity. However, some hydrogen fusion will occur in the upper layers. As the core contracts, it heats up. This heats the upper layers, causing them to expand. As the outer layers expand, the radius of the star will increase and it will become a red giant. The radius of the red giant sun will be just beyond the Earth's orbit. At some point after this, the core will become hot enough to cause the helium to fuse into carbon. When the helium fuel runs out, the core will expand and cool. The upper layers will expand and eject material that will collect around the dying star to form a planetary nebula. Finally, the core will cool into a white dwarf and then eventually into a black dwarf. This entire process will take a few billion years.
We are all made of stardust. Almost every element on Earth was formed at the heart of a star.
After the Big Bang, tiny particles bound together to form hydrogen and helium. As time went on, young stars formed when clouds of gas and dust gathered under the effect of gravity, heating up as they became denser. At the stars’ cores, bathed in temperatures of over 10 million degrees C, hydrogen and then helium nuclei fused to form heavier elements. A reaction known as nucleosynthesis.
Relatively young stars like our Sun convert hydrogen to produce helium, just like the first stars of our universe. Once they run out of hydrogen, they begin to transform helium into beryllium and carbon. As these heavier nuclei are produced, they too are burnt inside stars to synthesise heavier and heavier elements. Different sized stars play host to different fusion reactions, eventually forming everything from oxygen to iron.
During a supernova, when a massive star explodes at the end of its life, the resulting high energy environment enables the creation of some of the heaviest elements including iron and nickel. The explosion also disperses the different elements across the universe, scattering the stardust which now makes up planets including Earth.