A solenoid is a type of electromagnet when the purpose is to generate a controlled magnetic field. If the purpose of the solenoid is instead to impede changes in the electric current, a solenoid can be more specifically classified as an inductor rather than an electromagnet.

Space, universe, is pulling apart at the seams, expanding at a rate of 74.3 plus or minus 2.1 kilometers (46.2 plus or minus 1.3 miles) per second per megaparsec (a megaparsec is roughly 3 million light-years)

 

0.00000000000000000000000000000000000000000

00054

5.4 × 10-44

Planck Time (in seconds), the shortest meaningful interval of time, and the earliest time the known universe can be measured from.

 

0.000000000000000000000000000000000001616

1.616 × 10-35

Planck Length (in meters), the size of a hypothetical string. Lengths smaller than this are considered not make any physical sense in our current understanding of physics.

 

0.000000000000000000000000000000911

9.11 × 10-31

Approximate mass (in kilograms) of a stationary electron.

 

0.000000000000000000000000001

1 × 10-27

Approximate density (in kg/meter3) of the universe as a whole.

 

0.000000000000000000000000001673

1.673 × 10-27

Approximate mass (in kilograms) of a proton.

 

0.000000000000000000000000001675

1.675 × 10-27

Approximate mass (in kilograms) of a neutron.

 

0.000000000000000000000000005

5 × 10-27

Estimated critical density (in kg/meter3) of the universe, to allow a steady state between expansion and contraction (about 5 × 10-30 g/cm3).

 

0.00000000000000000000002

2 × 10-23

Effective radius (in meters) of a neutrino particle.

 

0.0000000000000000001602

1.602 × 10-19

Elementary charge (in Coulombs), i.e. the negative charge of a single electron, or the positive charge of a single proton.

 

0.00000000000000000052

5.2 × 10-19

Approximate energy (in Joules) of photons in visible light.

 

0.000000000000000001

1 × 10-18

Upper limit (in meters) on the size of the quark particles that make up protons and neutrons.

 

0.000000000000000001

1 × 10-18

Smallest object observable and measurable by current science.

  

0.00000000000000001

1 × 10-17

Approximate density (in kg/meter3) of the best vacuum achievable in a laboratory.

 

0.000000000000002818

2.818 × 10-15

Effective radius (in meters) of an electron according to classical theory.

 

0.00000000000001

1 × 10-14

Range (in meters) of the weak nuclear force within the nucleus.

 

0.00000000000008187

8.187 × 10-14

Rest mass-energy (in Joules) of an electron.

 

0.000000000001

1 × 10-12

Approximate mass (in kilograms) of the average human cell.

 

0.000000000005

5 × 10-12

Longest wavelength (in meters) of gamma rays.

 

0.000000000025

2.5 × 10-11

Radius (in meters) of a hydrogen atom.

 

0.0000000005972

5.972 × 10-10

Rest mass-energy (in Joules) of an alpha particle.

 

0.0000004

4 × 10-7

Approximate wavelength (in meters) of violet light, the shortest in the visible spectrum.

 

0.0000007

7 × 10-7

Approximate wavelength (in meters) of red light, the long in the visible spectrum.

 

0.74

7.4 × 10-1

Proportion of all matter in the universe composed of hydrogen.

 

0

0 × 100

Temperature (in ° Kelvin) of absolute zero, the lowest possible temperature (equivalent to -273.15° Celsius).

 

1.48

1.48 × 100

Density (in kg/meter3) of Earth’s atmosphere at sea level.

 

2.725

2.725 × 100

Temperature (in ° Kelvin) of cosmic microwave background radiation.

 

3.14

3.14 × 100

Pi, the ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter (more accurately 3.14159265358979323846...)

 

9.8

9.8 × 100

Strength of the gravitational field (in meters/second/second) at the Earth's surface.

 

92

9.2 × 101

Number of naturally occurring elements.

 

100

1 × 102

Wavelength (in meters) of the lowest shortwave radio frequency.

 

101

1.01 × 102

Standard atmospheric pressure (in kilopascals) for Earth at sea level.

 

331

3.31 × 102

Speed (in meters/second) of sound in air at sea level and 0°C.

 

464

4.64 × 102

Speed (in meters/second) of the Earth's rotation at the equator.

 

1,000

1 × 103

Density (in kg/meter3) of liquid water at 4°C.

 

1,366

1.366 × 103

Total solar radiation (in Joules) received from the Sun by one square meter of the Earth's surface per second.

 

5,780

5.78 × 103

Temperature (in ° Kelvin) of the surface of the Sun.

 

29,800

2.98 × 104

Speed (in meters/second) of the Earth in orbit around the Sun.

 

145,000

1.45 × 105

Ratio of the size of an atom of hydrogen to its nucleus (the ration of other more complex atoms is less).

150,000

1.5 × 105

Density (in kg/meter3) of the core of the Sun.

 

200,000

2 × 105

Speed (in meters/second) of the Solar System in orbit around the Milky Way galaxy.

 

552,000

5.52 × 105

Speed of the Milky Way galaxy, relative to the cosmic microwave background radiation.

 

3,474,000

3.474 × 106

Diameter (in meters) of the Moon.

 

12,756,000

1.2756 × 107

Equatorial diameter (in meters) of the Earth.

 

15,600,000

1.56 × 107

Temperature (in ° Kelvin) at the core of the Sun.

 

384,000,000

3.84 × 108

Orbital distance (in meters) of the Moon from the Earth.

 

299,792,458

2.998 × 108

Speed (in meters/second) of light (or any electromagnetic radiation) in a vacuum.

 

1,000,000,000

1 × 109

Approximate density (in kg/meter3) of white dwarf, or dead, stars.

 

1,390,000,000

1.39 × 109

Diameter (in metres) of the Sun (1.39 million kilometres).

10,000,000,000

1 × 1010

Temperature (in ° Kelvin) in a supernova explosion.

80,000,000,000

8 × 1010

Rough estimate of the number of stars in the Milky Way galaxy (estimates vary up to 4 × 1011).

 

150,000,000,000

1.5 × 1011

Mean distance (in meters) between the Earth and the Sun (150 million kilometers, or 1 Astronomical Unit).

 

380,000,000,000

3.8 × 1011

Pressure (in kilopascals) inside the core of the Earth.

900,000,000,000

9 × 1011

Estimated optical diameter (in meters) of Betelgeuse, a red supergiant star.

 

3,000,000,000,000

3 × 1012

Estimated optical diameter (in meters) of VY Canis Majoris, a red hypergiant and the largest known star (about 2,000 times the size of our Sun).

10,000,000,000,000

1 × 1013

Approximate diameter (in meters) of the Solar System (10 billion kilometers).

 

20,000,000,000,000

2 × 1013

Approximate density (in kg/metre3) of the universe at the electroweak epoch, about 10–12 seconds after the Big Bang.

 

90,000,000,000,000

9 × 1013

Theoretical total mass-energy (in Joules) of one gram of matter.

 

100,000,000,000,000

1 × 1014

Estimated number of cells in the human body (9 out of every 10 being bacteria cells).

 

9,460,000,000,000,000

9.46 × 1015

Distance (in meters) travelled by light in one year (1 light year or 9.46 trillion kilometers).

 

25,000,000,000,000,000

2.5 × 1016

Pressure (in kilopascals) inside the core of the Sun.

 

40,000,000,000,000,000

4 × 1016

Distance (in meters) to Proxima Centauri, the nearest star after the Sun (about 4.23 light years).

 

141,000,000,000,000,000

1.41 × 1017

Half-life (in seconds) of uranium (4.468 billion years).

 

200,000,000,000,000,000

2 × 1017

Density (in kg/meter3) of atomic nuclei and neutron stars.

 

432,000,000,000,000,000

4.32 × 1017

Estimated age (in seconds) of the universe, assuming 13.7 billion years since the Big Bang.

 

1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000

1 × 1021

Approximate diameter (in meters) of galactic disk of Milky Way galaxy (100,000 light years).

 

 

70,000,000,000,000,000,000,000

7 × 1022

Rough estimate of the number of stars in the observable universe (estimates vary from 1022 to 1024).

 

22,300,000,000,000,000,000,000

2.23 × 1022

Distance (in meters) to the Andromeda Galaxy, the nearest galaxy to our own (2.36 million light years).

 

2,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000

2 × 1024

Diameter (in meters) of the Virgo Supercluster, the cluster of galaxies which includes out own Local Group of galaxies (about 200 million light years).

 

6,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000

6 × 1024

Mass (in kilograms) of the Earth.

 

386,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000

3.86 × 1026

Total energy output (in Joules) of the Sun each second.

 

920,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000

9.2 × 1026

Approximate diameter (in meters) of the visible universe (92 billion light years).

 

1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000

1 × 1027

Temperature (in ° Kelvin) of the universe 10-35 seconds after the Big Bang, at the start of the inflationary epoch.

 

2,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000

2 × 1030

Mass (in kilograms) of the Sun (1 solar mass).

 

40,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000

4 × 1031

Mass (in kilograms) of Betelgeuse, a red supergiant star (about 20 solar masses).

 

141,700,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000

1.417 × 1032

Planck Temperature, the temperature (in ° Kelvin) of the universe at 1 Planck Time after the Big Bang.

 

10,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,

000,000

1 × 1040

Approximate ratio of the strength of the electromagnetic to the gravitational force between sub-atomic particles

 

36,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,

000,000

3.6 × 1040

Mass (in kilograms) of OJ287, the largest measured supermassive black hole.

 

687,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,

000,000

6.87 × 1041

Gravitational binding energy (in Joules) of the Sun.

 

120,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,

000,000,000

1.2 × 1044

Estimated energy (in Joules) released in a supernova explosion.

30,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,

000,000,000,000,000,000

3 × 1052

Estimated mass (in kilograms) of the observable universe.

 

4,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,

000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,

000

4 × 1069

Estimated total mass-energy (in Joules) of the observable universe.

 

100,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,

000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,

000,000,000

1 × 1080

Estimate the total number of fundamental particles in the observable universe (other estimates go up to 1085).

 

5,100,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,

000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,

000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000

5.1 × 1096

Planck density, the density (in kg/meter3) of the universe at one unit of Planck time after the Big Bang.

 

There are 1.67 sextillion molecules of H2O in a drop of water.

There are about 5 sextillion atoms in a drop of water.

Big Bang occurred: 13,700,000,000

There is a fundamental limit to decreasing temperature called the absolute zero. This is minus 273.16 degrees centigrade and according to the laws of thermodynamics can never be achieved. However, in principle it is possible to approach this limit with increasing powerful refrigeration despite the fact that the actual limit is unattainable. There are a number of fundamental limits in physics such as this one, the most famous of which is that it is not possible to travel faster than the speed of light.

In quantum mechanics and particle physics, spin is an intrinsic form of angular momentum carried by elementary particles, composite particles (hadrons), and atomic nuclei. Spin is a solely quantum-mechanical phenomenon; it does not have a counterpart in classical mechanics (despite the term spin being reminiscent of classical phenomena such as a planet spinning on its axis).

The Planck time, (tP), is the unit of time.  It is the time required for light to travel, in vacuum, a distance of 1 Planck length (1.616199 × 10-35 meters).  One Planck time is the time it would take a photon traveling at the speed of light to cross a distance equal to one Planck length. Theoretically, this is the smallest time measurement that will ever be possible, roughly 10−43 seconds.

 Planck time in one second: 10,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000

There are more Planck time units in one second than all the seconds since the Big Bang. 31,536,000 seconds in a year, times, 14.6 billion years

There are 118 known chemical elements as of 2011.

1 second is approximately a billion billion billion billion billion Planck times. 

Aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13. It has an atomic weight of 26. 9815, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 2519°C and a melting point of 660°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 24. 2J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1825 by Oersted.

Actinium is a chemical element with symbol Ac and atomic number 89. It has an atomic weight of 227, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 3198°C and a melting point of 1050°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 27. 2J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1899 by Debierne.

Americium is a chemical element with symbol Am and atomic number 95. It has an atomic weight of 243, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 2607°C and a melting point of 1176°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 62. 7J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1944 by Seaborg et al.

Antimony is a chemical element with symbol Sb and atomic number 51. It has an atomic weight of 121. 75, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 1587°C and a melting point of 630°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 25. 23J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1931 by Known in antiquity.

Argon is a chemical element with symbol Ar and atomic number 18. It has an atomic weight of 39. 948, and in its standard state it's a Gas. It has a boiling point of -185°C and a melting point of -189°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 20. 786J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1894 by Ramsay, Rayleigh.

Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33. It has an atomic weight of 74. 9216, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a specific heat capacity of 24. 64J/mol·1/K.

Astatine is a chemical element with symbol At and atomic number 85. It has an atomic weight of 210, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 337°C and a melting point of 302°C. It was discovered in 1940 by Corson et al.

Barium is a chemical element with symbol Ba and atomic number 56. It has an atomic weight of 137. 34, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 1897°C and a melting point of 727°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 28. 07J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1808 by Davy.

Berkelium is a chemical element with symbol Bk and atomic number 97. It has an atomic weight of 247, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It was discovered in 1949 by Seaborg et al.

Beryllium is a chemical element with symbol Be and atomic number 4. It has an atomic weight of 9. 0122, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 2469°C and a melting point of 1287°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 16. 443J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1798 by Vacquelin.

Bismuth is a chemical element with symbol Bi and atomic number 83. It has an atomic weight of 208. 98, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 1564°C and a melting point of 271°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 25. 52J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1753 by Known in antiquity.

Bohrium is a chemical element with symbol Bh and atomic number 107. It has an atomic weight of 262, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It was discovered in 1981 by Armbruster et al. 

Boron is a chemical element with symbol B and atomic number 5. It has an atomic weight of 10. 811, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 3927°C and a melting point of 2076°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 11. 087J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1808 by Davy, Gay-Lussac.

Bromine is a chemical element with symbol Br and atomic number 35. It has an atomic weight of 79. 904, and in its standard state it's a Liquid. It has a boiling point of 58°C and a melting point of -7°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 75. 69J/mol·1/K.It was discovered in 1826 by Balard. 

Cadmium is a chemical element with symbol Cd and atomic number 48. It has an atomic weight of 112. 411, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 767°C and a melting point of 321°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 26. 02J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1817 by Stromeyer. 

Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20. It has an atomic weight of 40. 078, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 1484°C and a melting point of 842°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 25. 929J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1808 by Davy.

Californium is a chemical element with symbol Cf and atomic number 98. It has an atomic weight of 251, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 1470°C and a melting point of 900°C. It was discovered in 1950 by Seaborg et al. 

Carbon is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6. It has an atomic weight of 12. 0107, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a specific heat capacity of 8. 517J/mol·1/K.

Cerium is a chemical element with symbol Ce and atomic number 58. It has an atomic weight of 140. 116, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 3443°C and a melting point of 795°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 26. 94J/mol·1/K.It was discovered in 1803 by Hisinger, Klaproth.

Cesium is a chemical element with symbol Cs and atomic number 55. It has an atomic weight of 132. 905, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 671°C and a melting point of 28°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 32. 21J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1860 by Bunsen, Kirchoff.

Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17. It has an atomic weight of 35. 4527, and in its standard state it's a Gas. It has a boiling point of -34°C and a melting point of -101°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 33. 949J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1774 by Scheele.

Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24. It has an atomic weight of 51. 9961, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 2671°C and a melting point of 1907°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 23. 35J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1797 by Vauquelin.

Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27. It has an atomic weight of 58. 9332, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 2927°C and a melting point of 1495°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 24. 81J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1735 by Brandt.

Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu and atomic number 29. It has an atomic weight of 63. 546, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 2562°C and a melting point of 1084°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 24. 44J/mol·1/K.

Curium is a chemical element with symbol Cm and atomic number 96. It has an atomic weight of 247, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It was discovered in 1944 by Seaborg et al.

Dubnium is a chemical element with symbol Db and atomic number 105. It has an atomic weight of 262, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It was discovered in 1970 by Ghiorso et al.

Dysprosium is a chemical element with symbol Dy and atomic number 66. It has an atomic weight of 162. 5, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 2562°C and a melting point of 1407°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 27. 7J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1886 by Boisbaudran.

Einsteinium is a chemical element with symbol Es and atomic number 99. It has an atomic weight of 252, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It was discovered in 1952 by Ghiorso et al.

Erbium is a chemical element with symbol Er and atomic number 68. It has an atomic weight of 167. 26, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 2868°C and a melting point of 1529°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 28. 12J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1843 by Mosander.

 Europium is a chemical element with symbol Eu and atomic number 63. It has an atomic weight of 151. 964, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 1529°C and a melting point of 826°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 27. 66J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1901 by Demarcay.

Fermium is a chemical element with symbol Fm and atomic number 100. It has an atomic weight of 257, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It was discovered in 1953 by Ghiorso et al

Fluorine is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9. It has an atomic weight of 18. 9984, and in its standard state it's a Gas. It has a boiling point of -188°C and a melting point of -219°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 31. 304J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1886 by Moissan.

Francium is a chemical element with symbol Fr and atomic number 87. It has an atomic weight of 223, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 677°C and a melting point of 27°C. It was discovered in 1939 by Perey.

Gadolinium is a chemical element with symbol Gd and atomic number 64. It has an atomic weight of 157. 25, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 3273°C and a melting point of 1312°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 37. 03J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1880 by Marignac. 

Gallium is a chemical element with symbol Ga and atomic number 31. It has an atomic weight of 69. 723, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 2204°C and a melting point of 29°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 25. 86J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1875 by Boisbaudran.

Germanium is a chemical element with symbol Ge and atomic number 32. It has an atomic weight of 72. 61, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 2833°C and a melting point of 938°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 23. 222J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1886 by Winkler.

Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au and atomic number 79. It has an atomic weight of 196. 967, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 2856°C and a melting point of 1064°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 25. 418J/mol·1/K.

Hafnium is a chemical element with symbol Hf and atomic number 72. It has an atomic weight of 178. 49, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 4603°C and a melting point of 2233°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 25. 73J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1923 by Coster, von Hevesy.

Hassium is a chemical element with symbol Hs and atomic number 108. It has an atomic weight of 265, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It was discovered in 1984 by Armbruster et al.

Helium is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2. It has an atomic weight of 4. 0026, and in its standard state it's a Gas. It has a boiling point of -268°C and a melting point of -272°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 20. 786J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1895 by A Ramsay. 

Holmium is a chemical element with symbol Ho and atomic number 67. It has an atomic weight of 164. 93, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 2720°C and a melting point of 1461°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 27. 15J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1878 by Soret, Delafontaine.

Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1. It has an atomic weight of 1.0079, and in its standard state it's a Gas. It has a boiling point of -252°C and a melting point of -259°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 14.3J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1766 by Cavendish.

Indium is a chemical element with symbol In and atomic number 49. It has an atomic weight of 114.818, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 2072°C and a melting point of 156°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 26.74J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1863 by Reich, Richter.

Iodine is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53. It has an atomic weight of 126.904, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 184°C and a melting point of 113°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 54.44J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1811 by Courtois.

Iridium is a chemical element with symbol Ir and atomic number 77. It has an atomic weight of 192.217, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 4428°C and a melting point of 2466°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 25.1J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1803 by Tennant.

Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe and atomic number 26. It has an atomic weight of 55.847, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 2862°C and a melting point of 1538°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 25.1J/mol·1/K.

Krypton is a chemical element with symbol Kr and atomic number 36. It has an atomic weight of 83.8, and in its standard state it's a Gas. It has a boiling point of -153°C and a melting point of -157°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 20.786J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1898 by Ramsay, Travers.

Lanthanum is a chemical element with symbol La and atomic number 57. It has an atomic weight of 138.906, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 3464°C and a melting point of 920°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 27.11J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1839 by Mosander.

Lawrencium is a chemical element with symbol Lr and atomic number 103. It has an atomic weight of 262, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It was discovered in 1961 by Ghiorso et al.

Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb and atomic number 82. It has an atomic weight of 207.2, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 1749°C and a melting point of 327°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 26.65J/mol·1/K.

Lithium is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3. It has an atomic weight of 6.941, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 1342°C and a melting point of 180°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 24.86J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1817 by Arfvedson.

Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12. It has an atomic weight of 24.305, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 1091°C and a melting point of 650°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 24869J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1808 by Davy.

Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25. It has an atomic weight of 54.938, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 2061°C and a melting point of 1246°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 36.32J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1774 by Gahn.

Meitnerium is a chemical element with symbol Mt and atomic number 109. It has an atomic weight of 265, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It was discovered in 1982 by Münzenberg et al..

Mendelevium is a chemical element with symbol Md and atomic number 101. It has an atomic weight of 258, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It was discovered in 1955 by Seaborg et al..

Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80. It has an atomic weight of 200.59, and in its standard state it's a Liquid. It has a specific heat capacity of 27.983J/mol·1/K.

Molybdenum is a chemical element with symbol Mo and atomic number 42. It has an atomic weight of 95.94, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 4639°C and a melting point of 2623°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 24.06J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1778 by Scheele.

Neodymium is a chemical element with symbol Nd and atomic number 60. It has an atomic weight of 144.24, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 3074°C and a melting point of 1024°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 27.45J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1885 by von Welsbach.

Neon is a chemical element with symbol Ne and atomic number 10. It has an atomic weight of 20.1797, and in its standard state it's a Gas. It has a boiling point of -246°C and a melting point of -248°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 20.786J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1898 by Ramsay, Travers.

Neptunium is a chemical element with symbol Np and atomic number 93. It has an atomic weight of 237, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 4000°C and a melting point of 637°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 29.46J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1940 by McMillan, Abelson.

Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28. It has an atomic weight of 58.6934, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 2732°C and a melting point of 1453°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 26.07J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1751 by Cronstedt.

Niobium is a chemical element with symbol Nb and atomic number 41. It has an atomic weight of 92.9064, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 4744°C and a melting point of 2477°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 24.6J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1801 by Hatchett.

Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7. It has an atomic weight of 14.0067, and in its standard state it's a Gas. It has a boiling point of -195°C and a melting point of -210°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 29.124J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1772 by Rutherford.

Nobelium is a chemical element with symbol No and atomic number 102. It has an atomic weight of 259, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It was discovered in 1958 by Seaborg et al..

Osmium is a chemical element with symbol Os and atomic number 76. It has an atomic weight of 190.23, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 5012°C and a melting point of 3033°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 24.7J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1803 by Tennant.

Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8. It has an atomic weight of 15.9994, and in its standard state it's a Gas. It has a boiling point of -182°C and a melting point of -218°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 29.378J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1774 by Priestly, Scheele.

Palladium is a chemical element with symbol Pd and atomic number 46. It has an atomic weight of 106.42, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 2963°C and a melting point of 1554°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 25.98J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1803 by Wollaston.

Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15. It has an atomic weight of 30.9738, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 280°C and a melting point of 416°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 23.824J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1669 by Brand.

Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78. It has an atomic weight of 195.078, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 3825°C and a melting point of 1768°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 25.86J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1735 by Ulloa.

Plutonium is a chemical element with symbol Pu and atomic number 94. It has an atomic weight of 244, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 3228°C and a melting point of 639°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 35.5J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1940 by Seaborg et al..

Polonium is a chemical element with symbol Po and atomic number 84. It has an atomic weight of 209, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 962°C and a melting point of 254°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 26.4J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1898 by Curie.

Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K and atomic number 19. It has an atomic weight of 39.0983, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 759°C and a melting point of 63°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 29.6J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1807 by Davy.

Praseodymium is a chemical element with symbol Pr and atomic number 59. It has an atomic weight of 140.908, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 3520°C and a melting point of 935°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 27.2J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1885 by von Welsbach.

Promethium is a chemical element with symbol Pm and atomic number 61. It has an atomic weight of 145, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 3000°C and a melting point of 1042°C. It was discovered in 1945 by Marinsky et al..

Protactinium is a chemical element with symbol Pa and atomic number 91. It has an atomic weight of 231.036, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 4027°C and a melting point of 1568°C. It was discovered in 1918 by Hahn, Meitner.

Radium is a chemical element with symbol Ra and atomic number 88. It has an atomic weight of 22, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 1737°C and a melting point of 700°C. It was discovered in 1898 by P. & M. Curie.

Radon is a chemical element with symbol Rn and atomic number 86. It has an atomic weight of 222, and in its standard state it's a Gas. It has a boiling point of -61°C and a melting point of -71°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 20.786J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1900 by Dorn. 

Rhenium is a chemical element with symbol Re and atomic number 75. It has an atomic weight of 186.207, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 5596°C and a melting point of 3186°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 25.48J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1925 by Noddack, Tacke, Berg.

Rhodium is a chemical element with symbol Rh and atomic number 45. It has an atomic weight of 102.906, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 3695°C and a melting point of 1964°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 24.98J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1803 by Wollaston.

Rubidium is a chemical element with symbol Rb and atomic number 37. It has an atomic weight of 85.4678, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 688°C and a melting point of 39°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 31.06J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1861 by Bunsen, Kirchhoff.

Ruthenium is a chemical element with symbol Ru and atomic number 44. It has an atomic weight of 101.07, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 4150°C and a melting point of 2334°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 24.06J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1844 by Klaus.

Rutherfordium is a chemical element with symbol Rf and atomic number 104. It has an atomic weight of 261, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It was discovered in 1969 by Ghiorso et al..

Samarium is a chemical element with symbol Sm and atomic number 62. It has an atomic weight of 150.36, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 1794°C and a melting point of 1072°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 29.54J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1879 by Boisbaudran.

Scandium is a chemical element with symbol Sc and atomic number 21. It has an atomic weight of 44.9559, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 2836°C and a melting point of 1541°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 25.52J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1879 by Nilson.

Seaborgium is a chemical element with symbol Sg and atomic number 106. It has an atomic weight of 263, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It was discovered in 1974 by Ghiorso et al..

Selenium is a chemical element with symbol Se and atomic number 34. It has an atomic weight of 78.96, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 685°C and a melting point of 221°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 25.363J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1817 by Berzelius.

Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14. It has an atomic weight of 28.0855, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 3265°C and a melting point of 1414°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 19.789J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1824 by Berzelius.

Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag and atomic number 47. It has an atomic weight of 107.868, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 2162°C and a melting point of 961°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 25.35J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1920 by Known in antiquity.

Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na and atomic number 11. It has an atomic weight of 22.9898, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 883°C and a melting point of 92°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 28.23J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1807 by Davy.

Strontium is a chemical element with symbol Sr and atomic number 38. It has an atomic weight of 87.62, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 1382°C and a melting point of 777°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 26.4J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1790 by Crawford.

Sulfur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16. It has an atomic weight of 32.06, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 444°C and a melting point of 115°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 22.75J/mol·1/K.

Tantalum is a chemical element with symbol Ta and atomic number 73. It has an atomic weight of 180.948, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 5458°C and a melting point of 3017°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 25.36J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1802 by Ekeberg.

Technetium is a chemical element with symbol Tc and atomic number 43. It has an atomic weight of 97, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 4265°C and a melting point of 2157°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 24.27J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1937 by Perrier, Segre.

Tellurium is a chemical element with symbol Te and atomic number 52. It has an atomic weight of 127.6, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 988°C and a melting point of 449°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 25.73J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1782 by Reichenstein.

Terbium is a chemical element with symbol Tb and atomic number 65. It has an atomic weight of 158.925, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 3230°C and a melting point of 1356°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 28.91J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1843 by Mosander.

Thallium is a chemical element with symbol Tl and atomic number 81. It has an atomic weight of 204.383, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 1473°C and a melting point of 304°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 36.32J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1861 by Crookes.

Thorium is a chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90. It has an atomic weight of 232.038, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 4788°C and a melting point of 1842°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 26.23J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1828 by Berzelius.

Thulium is a chemical element with symbol Tm and atomic number 69. It has an atomic weight of 168.934, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 1950°C and a melting point of 1545°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 27.03J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1879 by Cleve.

Tin is a chemical element with symbol Sn and atomic number 50. It has an atomic weight of 118.69, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 2602°C and a melting point of 231°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 27.112J/mol·1/K.

Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti and atomic number 22. It has an atomic weight of 47.9, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 3287°C and a melting point of 1668°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 25.06J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1791 by Gregor.

Tungsten is a chemical element with symbol W and atomic number 74. It has an atomic weight of 183.85, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 5555°C and a melting point of 3422°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 24.27J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1783 by F. & J. de Elhuyar.

Ununbium is a chemical element with symbol Uub and atomic number 112. It has an atomic weight of 27, and in its standard state it's a Liquid. It was discovered in 1996 by Armbruster et al..

Ununhexium is a chemical element with symbol Uuh and atomic number 116. It has an atomic weight of 289, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It was discovered in 1999 by Ninov et al..

Ununnilium is a chemical element with symbol Uun and atomic number 110. It has an atomic weight of 269, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It was discovered in 1994 by Armbruster et al..

Ununoctium is a chemical element with symbol Uuo and atomic number 118. It has an atomic weight of 293, and in its standard state it's a Gas. It was discovered in 1999 by Ninov et al..

Ununpentium is a chemical element with symbol Uup and atomic number 115. It has an atomic weight of 289, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It was discovered in 2004 by Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Lawrence Livermore.

Ununquadium is a chemical element with symbol Uuq and atomic number 114. It has an atomic weight of 285, and in its standard state it's a Gas. It was discovered in 1999 by Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (unconfirmed).

Ununseptium is a chemical element with symbol Uus and atomic number 117. It has an atomic weight of 294, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It was discovered in 2010 by Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions.

Ununtrium is a chemical element with symbol Uut and atomic number 113. It has an atomic weight of 286, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It was discovered in 2003 by Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Lawrence Livermore.

Unununium is a chemical element with symbol Uuu and atomic number 111. It has an atomic weight of 27, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It was discovered in 1994 by Armbruster et al..

Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92. It has an atomic weight of 238.029, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 4131°C and a melting point of 1132°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 27.665J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1789 by Klaproth.

Vanadium is a chemical element with symbol V and atomic number 23. It has an atomic weight of 50.9415, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 3407°C and a melting point of 1910°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 24.89J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1830 by Sefstrom.

Xenon is a chemical element with symbol Xe and atomic number 54. It has an atomic weight of 131.29, and in its standard state it's a Gas. It has a boiling point of -108°C and a melting point of -111°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 20.786J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1898 by A Ramsay, Travers.

Ytterbium is a chemical element with symbol Yb and atomic number 70. It has an atomic weight of 173.04, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 1196°C and a melting point of 824°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 26.74J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1878 by Marignac.

Yttrium is a chemical element with symbol Y and atomic number 39. It has an atomic weight of 88.9059, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 3336°C and a melting point of 1526°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 26.53J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1794 by Gadolin.

Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30. It has an atomic weight of 65.38, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 907°C and a melting point of 419°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 25.47J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1746 by Marggraf.

Zirconium is a chemical element with symbol Zr and atomic number 40. It has an atomic weight of 91.224, and in its standard state it's a Solid. It has a boiling point of 4409°C and a melting point of 1855°C. It has a specific heat capacity of 25.36J/mol·1/K. It was discovered in 1789 by Klaproth.

1 year has 31,556,926 seconds.

1 month has 2,629,743 seconds.

1 week has 604,800 seconds.

1 day has 86,400 seconds.

1 hour has 3,600 seconds.

In physics, the principle of locality states that an object is only directly influenced by its immediate surroundings. A physical theory is said to be a local theory if it is consistent with the principle of locality. To date, no test has simultaneously closed all loopholes to the idea that entangled particles violate the principle of locality or engage in superluminal communication.

Brownian motion or pedesis is the presumably random moving of particles suspended in a fluid (a liquid or a gas) resulting from their bombardment by the fast-moving atoms or molecules in the gas or liquid. The term "Brownian motion" can also refer to the mathematical model used to describe such random movements, which is often called a particle theory.

The ultraviolet catastrophe, also called the Rayleigh–Jeans catastrophe, was the prediction of late 19th century/early 20th century classical physics that an ideal black body at thermal equilibrium will emit radiation with infinite power.