In One Minute:

136,824,00 pounds of carbon dioxide will be released into the atmosphere as a byproduct of burning fossil fuels

858,282,240,000,000,000 new red blood cells are created

Lightning strikes the Earth 360 times

There are 5 earthquakes

107 deaths

18 die from starvation

250 babies are born

A three-toed sloth moves about 10 feet (3m)

A giant tortoise moves about 15 feet (4.5 m)

A common snail moves about one foot (30cm)

The moon travels 38 miles (61km) in its orbit around earth

A grizzly bear can run one half-mile (805m)

Person standing in one spot at the equator travels 18 miles (29km) as Earth rotates.

Elephant heart beats about 30 times

A hamster’s heart beats about 450 times

An adult’s heart beats about 70 times

A child’s heart beats about 100 times

A chilly crocodile’s heart may slow to one beat.

The world’s population increases by 149 people

A horned lizard can eat 45 ants, one at the time.

An adult takes 15 breaths.

An average of 5 cups (1.2l) of fresh water is used for every person on Earth.

A starfish can move 6 inches (15cm)

125 pounds (56.7 kg) of space debris falls on Earth

The Sun travels 8,333 miles (13,416 km) around the center of the Milky Way Galaxy.

A baby blue whale feeding on its mother’s milk gains 2.6 oz (73.7 gr.)

A mole can dig a tunnel 4” (10cm) long.

A pigmy shrew’s heart beats 840 times.

A bat can make 12,000 high-pitched calls.

A rattlesnake shakes its tail in warning 3,600 times.

A woodpecker hammers a tree trunk with its beak 1200 times.

A hummingbird beats its wings 3000 times.

A bumblebee beats its wings 12,000. A midge, a gnat, beats its wings 60,000 times.

A vulture in flight flaps its wings 60 times.

A black mamba slithers 1,440 feet, 480 yards, (439m).

A dragonfly can fly 3,000 feet (914.5 m).

Some humans can run 2,340 feet (720 m).

A stone dropped from rest falls 960 feet (300 m)

A commercial jet covers about 48,000 feet (14,640m)

The Helios II satellite travels 2,610 miles (4,200 km)

Light travels 11,178,000 miles per minute.

A meteor entering Earth’s atmosphere can travel 2,640 miles (4,260km)

A human can blink 420 times

90,000 chickens are killed

Earth travels 1,110 miles (1,800 km) in its orbit around the Sun.

There are 1440 minutes in a day.

There are 525,949 minutes in a year

There are 10,080 minutes in a week

There are 43829 minutes in a month

There are 43829 minutes in a month

Simulating 1 second of human brain activity takes 82,944 processors

It took 40 minutes with the combined muscle of 82,944 processors in K computer to get just 1 second of biological brain processing time.

An average computer can execute approximately 100 million instructions per second.

Each year, 2.6 million children die as a result of hunger-related causes.

About 21,000 people die every day of hunger or hunger-related causes, according to the United Nations. This is one person every four seconds.

Humans carry 80-100 billion nerve cells, or about as many stars as there are in the Milky Way.

Euoplocephalus belong to the family of dinosaurs called the ankylosaurids, which were characterized by an armored head and bony plating on the body. This dinosaur grew to about 23ft (7m) in length and weighed around two tones.

Despite their tiny size, microscopic organisms dominate life on Earth. They were the first living things to evolve, and they underpin all the world’s ecosystems, releasing and recycling nutrients that other forms of life need to survive.

There are more than 2,000 known Archaea species. The Archaea constitute a domain or kingdom of single-celled microorganisms. These microbes are prokaryotes, meaning that they have no cell nucleus or any other membrane-bound organelles within their cells. Archaea cells are contained by chemically unique membranes overlain by a tough outer cell wall, and within the cell their DNA is often protein-covered.

Prokaryotes size is measured in microns or micrometers. 1 micrometer equals one-thousandth of a millimeter. A human hair is about 80 micrometers, but most prokaryotes are just 1-10 micrometers in length.

Woolly mammoths were elephants that were adapted to the cold. They were actively hunted by humans around 30,000 years ago, which may have contributed to the extinction of most woolly mammoths by 11,000 years ago.

Roughly 1 species becomes extinct every 20 minutes. Every day, up to 150 species are lost. Every year, between 18,000 and 55,000 species become extinct.

The fossil record shows that life first appeared on Earth at least 3.8 billion years ago.

Photosynthesis: Plants use pigment chlorophyll to capture light energy and convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars and oxygen.

The most primitive life forms today are single-celled prokaryotes, which can survive even in extreme temperature and acidic conditions.

By bout 750-550 million years ago, the first sponges with colonies of cells had evolved.

545 million years ago, numerous multicelled marine organisms had evolved.

Around 510 million years ago, the first vertebrates appeared, with an internal skeletal support for the body.

About 17,500 species of butterflies have now been described.

Global diversity is estimated to range from two to 100 million species. Only 1.4 million have been described.

Bacterial cells are much smaller than human cells, and there are at least ten times as many bacteria as human cells in the body (approximately 1014 versus 1013).

Plants are the only life forms that can produce their own food using energy from sunlight. Plants produce almost all of the oxygen in the air that humans and other animals breathe.

Estimates for the number of neurons (nerve cells) in the human brain range from 80 to 120 billion.

Most of the neurons come from the cerebral cortex, especially the frontal lobes, which are associated with executive functions such as self-control, planning, reasoning, and abstract thought.

There are an estimated 100,000,000,000,000,000 ants in the world (1016).

The combined weight of all the ants in the world is approximately the same or greater than the combined weight of all human beings.

The adult human body has 206 bones. An infant may have from 300-350 bones at birth.

Protists are mainly single–celled creatures that, unlike Prokaryotes, have cell nuclei.

Protists range in size from 10 to 100 micrometers, and some are tiny enough to infest red blood cells. Other join together to produce multicellular colonies such as kelp, a seaweed that grows up to tens of feet in length, or the strange, fungus like slime molds, which form creeping puddles of slime that are essentially one giant sell.

Like plants, most algae on land or in water use green chlorophyll during photosynthesis to catch the energy of sunlight to make food. But red algae have pigments that allow them to do the same thing in deeper coastal waters.

There are about 6,000 species of red algae. Unlike brown and green algae, they do not produce flagellated sperm. Instead, reproduction involves a fusion of cells more reminiscent of that in fungi.

Liverworts are thought to be the simplest of all the existing groups of land plants. There are around 8,000 different species.

Cycads are an ancient nonflowering plants, dating back nearly 300 million years.

Conifers evolved over 300 million years ago, long before the world’s first broad-leaved trees.

With over 250,000 species, flowering plants are by far the largest group of plants, as well as most diverse.

Many invertebrates (animals without a backbone) are microscopic, but the largest are over 33ft (10m) long.

Sponges are mostly marine animals, with some 15,000 species.

There are about 1,230,000 species of Arthropods. Arthropods include the insects, arachnids, and crustaceans.

The female of Mexican Red-Kneed Tarantula can live up to 30 years, but the life span of the male is only up to 6 years.

Insects first appeared on land more that 400 million years ago and today they account for more species than any other class on the planet (about 1,000,000)

There are 31,254 species of fish.

The first reptiles evolved from amphibians more than 295 million years ago.

Reptile groups that still exist today have survived the mass extinction event that killed off the dinosaurs 65 million years ago.

Tortoises are slaw animals, but some sea turtles can reach speed of 19 mph (30 kph).

Turtles and tortoises do not have ears like ours, but they can feel vibrations and changes in water pressure that tell them where food, or a predator, might be.

Turtles and tortoises have a good sense of smell, which helps them find food.

The skin of a turtle or tortoise, especially the land tortoises, may look leathery and tough but it is actually very sensitive.

Aldabra Giant Tortoise can weight over 600lb (300kg).

The major difference between Tortoises and Turtles is that Tortoises live on land while Turtles live in water.

The smallest snakes are tiny, threadlike creatures, but the largest can reach 33ft (10m).

There are 196 families and 10,117 species of birds.

Penguins can dive for fish, shrimps, and krill more than 200 times each day.

King Penguin dives more than 660 ft (200m) to hunt for fish.

At 200 million years old, mammals are a relatively recent group. There are about 5,500 species of mammals.

There are 5 species of egg-laying mammals.

The Red Kangaroo is the largest and swiftest kangaroo, able to hop at more than 30 miles(50km) per hour.

Elephants eat up to 16 hours per day, consuming up to 550 lb (250kg) of vegetation.

Rodents make up nearly half of all mammal species; 2,277 rodents species.

Bactrian Camel is built to survive in the harsh desert landscapes of southern Asia, where temperature range between 104oF (40oC) in summer and -20oF (-29oC) in winter.

Bactrian Camel is able to drink more than 26 gallons (100 liters) of water in 10 minutes.

Synapses are small gaps between neurons. When a neuron is active, an electrical impulse travels down its nerve fiber and causes the release of a chemical neurotransmitter from its terminal. The transmitter drifts across the synaptic space and binds to a dendrite on the receiving neuron, thus closing the gap. Essentially, everything that brain does is accomplished by the process of synaptic transmission.

There are about 100 billion neurons in the brain, 1000 trillion connections, and around 100 trillion synapses.

The Cerebellum (the area of the hindbrain) play important roles in the coordination of movement and the modulation of emotion, and it is involved in the learning and recall of skills and in cognitive aspects of skill development.

The Hippocampus belongs to the limbic system and plays important roles in the consolidation of information from short-term memory to long-term memory and spatial navigation. Humans and other mammals have two hippocampi, one in each side of the brain.

The Cerebral Cortex is the largest part of the human brain, associated with higher brain function such as thought and action. The cerebral cortex is divided into four sections:

1. Frontal Lobe- associated with reasoning, planning, parts of speech, movement, emotions, and problem solving.

2. Parietal Lobe- associated with movement, orientation, recognition, perception of stimuli.

3. Occipital Lobe- associated with visual processing.

4. Temporal Lobe- associated with perception and recognition of auditory stimuli, memory, and speech.

The limbic system, often referred to as the "emotional brain", is found buried within the cerebrum. Like the cerebellum, evolutionarily the structure is rather old. This system contains the thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala, and hippocampus.

Thalamus is a large mass of gray matter situated between the cerebral cortex and midbrain. Its function includes relaying sensory and motor signals to the cerebral cortex, along with the regulation of consciousness, sleep, and alertness. Almost all sensory information enters this structure where neurons send that information to the overlying cortex. Axons from every sensory system (except olfaction) synapse here as the last relay site before the information reaches the cerebral cortex.

The hypothalamus is involved in several functions of the body including:

Autonomic Function Control

Endocrine Function Control


Motor Function Control

Food and Water Intake Regulation

Sleep-Wake Cycle Regulation


The amygdala (Latin, corpus amygdaloideum) is an almond-shape set of neurons located deep in the brain's medial temporal lobe. Shown to play a key role in the processing of emotions, the amygdala forms part of the limbic system.

In humans and other animals, amygdala is linked to both fear responses and pleasure.

Amygdala’s size is positively correlated with aggressive behavior across species.

In humans, amygdala is the most sexually-dimorphic brain structure, and shrinks by more than 30% in males upon castration.

Conditions such as anxiety, autism, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and phobias are suspected of being linked to abnormal functioning of the amygdala, owing to damage, developmental problems, or neurotransmitter imbalance.

There are 78 organs in the human body.

A bee has 5 eyes at all. But their functions are different each other. They have two large eyes and three simple eyes.

The reason why hair turns gray as we age is because the pigment cells in the hair follicle start to die, which is responsible for producing "melanin" which gives the hair color.

The structure of the haemoglobin molecule in blood changes slightly depending on whether it is carrying oxygen or not, so oxygenated and de-oxygenated blood has different magnetic properties.

The human body is made up of about 200 different cell types.

There are three different muscle tissue categories – smooth muscle, skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle tissue.

A nerve cell that cannot transmit an electrical pulse is called a neuroglia or glial cell, and makes up the support tissues for the neurons.

A nerve cell that can transmit an electrical pulse is known as a neuron

The adult human body is made up of about 60-90 trillion cells. If you lined up all the cells in a human body end-to-end, you could actually circle the earth 4.5 times.

Humans generally have between 2 and 6 pounds (1.0 to 2.72 kg) of bacteria in their bodies.

Healthy people can share their bodies with more than 10,000 species of microbes.

There are trillions of microscopic bacteria that live in or on human body, all the time.

Each human being is not just a single organism, but rather one superorganism composed of bacteria, viruses, and cells.

In the last decade, biologists have discovered that there are thousands of different bacterial species inside or on us. Among these bacteria are just a few dozen species that catastrophically make us sick.

A human cannot exist without their bacterial passengers, but the bacteria will do just fine without humans.

For every one pound of human weight on the planet, there are 5,000 pounds of bacterial weight.

For every one cell in the human body, there are 10 times as many cells of symbiotic bacteria.

For every one gene in human genome, there are 100 times as many genes from the collective genome of the bacterial community in human body.

The bacteria on humans’ skin mix with sweat to affect how attractive humans are to mosquitoes.

The bacteria on women’s hands are more diverse than the bacteria on men’s hands. 

The human brain has about 100 billion neurons. With an estimated average of one thousand connections between each neuron and its neighbors, we have about 100 trillion connections, each capable of a simultaneous calculation, but only 200 calculations per second. With 100 trillion connections, each computing at 200 calculations per second, we get 20 million billion calculations per second.

A normal human being produces 1 to 2 liters of saliva per day.

Every minute a day you lose about 30000 to 40000 dead skin cells.

A cough releases an explosive charge of air that moves at speeds up to 60 mph.

A fingernail or toenail takes about 6 months to grow from base to tip.

A human being loses an average of 40 to 100 strands of hair a day.

A sneeze can exceed the speed of 100 mph.

Your heart beats about 100,000 times in one day and about 35 million times in a year. During an average lifetime, the human heart will beat more than 2.5 billion times.

The average square inch (6.5 cm²) of skin holds 650 sweat glands, 20 blood vessels, 60,000 melanocytes (melanin producing cells, which is a pigment found in the skin, eyes, and hair), and more than 1,000 nerve endings.

Every square inch of the human body has an average of 32 million bacteria on it.

Our eyes are always the same size from birth, but our nose and ears never stop growing.

By 40 years of age, an average person will have produce 400 pounds of dust.

The small intestine is about 20-25 feet long.

In a lifetime the average US resident eats more than 50 tons of food and drinks more than 13,000 gallons of liquid.

It takesabout 43 muscles to frown and only 17 to smile.

The largest human organ is the skin, with a surface area of about 25 square feet.

The left lung is smaller than the right lung to make room for the heart.

There are 45 miles of nerves in the skin of a human being.

The average human body contains enough: Carbon to make 900 pencils, Phosphorus to make 2,200 match heads, and enough Water to fill a ten gallon tank.

Every day an adult body produces 300 billion new cells.

Humans use 200 muscles to take one step.

There are typically 40 million bacterial cells in a gram of soil and a million bacterial cells in a milliliter of fresh water.

Mayfly lives one day only.

Squid has only one bone.

Snake has only one lung.

Most recent study has estimated that there are 10,000 to 50,000 species of bacteria per gram of soil.

Microbes first appeared on earth about 3.5 billion years ago. They are critically important in sustaining life on our planet.

Microbes outnumber all other species and make up most living matter.

Less than .5% of the estimated 2 to 3 billion microbial species have been identified.

Microbes comprise ~60% of the earths biomass.

Microbes drive the chemistry of life and affect the global climate.

Microbial cycling of such critical chemical elements as carbon and nitrogen helps keep the world inhabitable for all life forms.

Microbes generate at least half the oxygen we breathe.

Microbes thrive in an amazing diversity of habitats in extremes of heat, cold, radiation, pressure, salinity, acidity, and darkness, and often where no other life forms could exist and where nutrients come only from inorganic matter.

Microbes offer unusual capabilities reflecting the diversity of their environmental niches. These may prove useful as a source of new genes and organisms of value in addressing bioremediation, global change, biotechnology, and energy production.

Microbial studies will help us define the entire repertoire of organisms in specialized niches and, ultimately, the mechanisms by which they interact in the biosphere.

Diversity patterns of microorganisms can be used for monitoring and predicting environmental change.

Microbes are roots of life's family tree. An understanding of their genomes will help us understand how more complex genomes developed.

Microbial genomes are modest in size and relatively easy to study (usually no more than 10 million DNA bases, compared with some 3 billion in the human and mouse genomes).

Microbial communities are excellent models for understanding biological interactions and evolution.

Most microbes do not cause disease.

An adult takes about 21,600 breaths in a day.

In one minute world’s population increases by 149 people, or 214,560 per day (265 people are born and 116 people die per minute).

There are 150 million species of prokaryotes.

The prokaryotes are a group of organisms whose cells lack a membrane-bound nucleus (karyon). The organisms whose cells do have a nucleus are called eukaryotes. Most prokaryotes are unicellular organisms, although a few such as myxobacteria have multicellular stages in their life cycles or create large colonies like cyanobacteria.

Prokaryotes include two major classification domains of life: the Bacteria and the Archaea.

There are about 60,000 miles of blood vessels in the human body.

For example, white blood cells live for about thirteen days, cells in the top layer of your skin live about 30 days, red blood cells live for about 120 days, and liver cells live about 18 months.

Statistic Verification, Source: Center for Disease Control, Research Date: July 14th, 2014

The human body is the entire structure of a human being and comprises a head, neck, trunk (which includes the thorax and abdomen), two arms and hands and two legs and feet. Every part of the body is composed of various types of cell. At maturity, the estimated number of cells in the body is given as 37.2 trillion. This number is stated to be of partial data and to be used as a starting point for further calculations. The number given is arrived at by totaling the cell numbers of all the organs of the body and cell types. The composition of the human body shows it to be composed of a number of certain elements in different proportions. The study of the human body involves anatomy and physiology. The human body can show anatomical non-pathological anomalies which need to be able to be recognized. Physiology focuses on the systems and their organs of the human body and their functions. Many systems and mechanisms interact in order to maintain homeostasis.

Body Fluid Statistics:

Average amount of water in the human body

40 litres

Average percent of body weight made up of water


Amount of body fluid that is Intracellular fluid

25 litres

Amount of body fluid that is Extracellular fluid

15 litres

Amount of Extracellular fluid that is Plasma fluid

3 litres

Amount of Extracellular fluid that is Interstitial fluid

12 litres

Amount of Extracellular fluid that is Transcellular fluid


Human Heart Statistics

 Average human heart beats per day


Average human heart beats per year

35 Million

Average human heart beats per lifetime

3 Billion

Gallons of blood pumped by the heart in a lifetime

48 Million

Human Lung Statistics

Lung breathes per day


Gallons of air produced per year

80 Million

Kidney Statistics

 Urine produced each day by kidneys

1.5 Quarts

Urin produced in a lifetime by kidneys

10,000 Gallons

Blood processed each minute by kidneys

1 Quart

Blood processed each day by kidneys

423 Gallons

Blood processed in a lifetime by kidneys

13 Million Gallons

Food Consumption

 Amount of food consumed each day by average human

3.5 pounds

Amount of food consumed in a lifetime by average human

53 Tons

Saliva produced in a lifetime

10,000 gallons

Average time it takes food to travel from mouth to stomach

7 Seconds

Body Makeup Statistics

 Number of cells that compose the body

100 Trillion

Number of cells that die and are replaced every minute

300 Million

Blood cells that die every minute

15 Million

Muscles in the human body


Bones in the human body


Square feet of skin in the human body

20 Square ft

Miles of blood vessels in the human body


Number of scents detected by the nose


Number of eye blinks each year

6 Million

Number of diseases that affect the human body



Types of Microorganisms

Nomenclature – scientific name binomial system of Linnaeus

Genus species: ex. Escherichia coli, E. coli

 I.   Eubacteria (Bacteria) prokaryotic cell type

     1. Size: .1-2 μm, average 1 μm (micrometer)

     2. Shapes:

        coccus (spherical or round)

        pairs – diplococcus

        chains – streptococcus

         clusters – staphylococcus

         bacillus (rod shaped)

         spiral (helical)

         pleomorphic – irregular rods

     3. Reproduction – binary fission

     4. Unusual types of bacteria

a. Rickettsia – obligate intracellular parasites, live in host cells, pathogenic, very small, spread by vectors

b. Chlamydia – obligate intracellular parasites, very small, pathogenic

c. mycoplasmas – no cell wall, pneumonia

Cyanobacteria – aerobic bacteria that do photosynthesis

     1. Size: varies greatly; generally larger than normal bacteria

     2. Shape: single cell to filamentous

     3. Cellular Anatomy:

         a. chlorophyll a – photosynthesis

                  phycocyanin – blue pigment

                  photosynthetic lamellae – folds in cell membrane

                  no chloroplasts

         b. motility – gliding motion, no flagella

         c.  some live in extreme conditions – temperature, salt

II. Archaea – prokaryotic cell type

1. single cells, microscopic

2. many live in extreme environments

3. cellular components more like eukaryotic cell

III. Eukarya – eukaryotic cell type

A. Algae – primary producers (utilize light and CO2)

     1. Size: microscopic to 200 feet

     2. Shape: widely variable

     3. Cellular Anatomy:

         a. Chlorophyll a in chloroplasts

         b. Many other pigments; red, brown

                  Classification based on auxiliary pigments

         c.  Some are motile – gliding or flagella

         d. Asexual and sexual reproduction

     4. Special types:

         a. Diatoms – silica cell walls

              diatomaceous earth – filters

              abrasives, insulation, food additives

b. Seaweeds– food source, alginates, food additives

 agar for Petri plates

c.  Lichens – symbiosis of mold/fungi and algae (mutualism)

very hardy, soil formation, pollution indicators, drugs

B. Fungi

Common Traits

1. Absorptive growth

2. Growth as hypha

3. Chitin-containing cell walls

Role: recycling biomass, produce enzymes to degrade wide range of substrates

Some are pathogenic for humans, many pathogenic for plants.

1. Size: microscopic to visible

2. Shape: coccus to filamentous

3. Cellular Anatomy: no photosynthesis

     a. no true roots, leaves, and stems

     b. organic cell wall

     c.  asexual and sexual reproduction

Yeasts – unicellular fungi (lost ability to form hypha yet some pathogens can form filaments)

     a. oval cells – 5 μm diameter

     b. reproduce by budding

c.  uses: brewing, baking, industrial fermentations,

 food supplements

Molds – multicellular, filamentous

     a. Hyphae - coenocytic, septate, non-septate

     b. Hypha – chain of cells, filament

         mycelium – mass of hyphae

c.  Fruiting heads – very characteristic for a genus (sporangium)

d. Reproduction – usually asexual spores dormant, resistant

              can cause allergic reactions

sexual – hyphal cell fusion, sexual spores

e. Grow in many environments, require low amounts of water

mildew, food spoilage

Specific Examples:

Mycorrhizae – mutualism between soil fungus and plant roots

Mushrooms – fruiting bodies of soil fungi

C. Protists (Protozoa)

Heterotrophs- uses external organic carbon sources for biosynthesis

Usually predators or parasites

1. Size: microscopic, much larger than bacteria

2. Shape: unicellular, varies

3. No organic cell wall

4. Holozoic nutrition – most ingest solid masses of food rather than soluble nutrients

5. Four Groups based on motility

a. Amoeba – very flexible, pseudopodia, phagocytosis

         some have mineral shells

b. Flagellates – one or more flagella

c.  Ciliates – numerous cilia

         good swimmers

d. Sporozoa – non-motile parasites, complex life cycles,

ex. malaria

6. Some are serious human pathogens

7. Some have undergone evolutionary reduction

(ex.  lack mitochondria)

Specific Examples:

Dinoflagellates – motile, marine, red tide

Evolutionary reductionism – chloroplast to an apicoplast

Toxoplasma – toxoplasmosis, cats

Plasmodium – malaria

Trypanosomes – African sleeping sickness, Chagas disease

Microsporidia –

Giardia – cause giardiasis, found in deer and sheep


Bacteriophage (phage) – viruses that infect bacteria

1. Size: 0.01-0.2 μm (submicroscopic)

2. Obligate intracellular parasites – host cell

3. No independent metabolism

4. Host specific

5. Virion (virus outside a host cell)

         a. core of DNA or RNA

         b. coat (capsid) of protein

6. Replication methods:

     a. Lytic Cycle (active infection)

         1. Virus attaches to cell

         2. DNA or RNA enters cell

         3. Replication of virus parts by cell machinery

         4. Assembly of virus particle

         5. Virions released from cell

     b. Lysogenic Cycle (Latent)

         1. Attachment of virus

         2. Entry of DNA/RNA

         3. Integration of DNA into host cell DNA

4. Induction – stress causes viral DNA to be released and an active (lytic) infection results

7. Viruses are pathogenic to the host.

All living organisms have viral infections.

8. Prevention – immunization

9. Treatment – primarily symptomatic


1. 10X smaller than viruses

2. “naked” RNA molecules

3. Only plant pathogens presently known

4. 12 types – each causes a different plant disease

5. Economically significant, ex. potato disease


1. 100X smaller than viruses

2. Contain only protein, no DNA or RNA has been found

3. Cause human and animal infections.


     scrapie – sheep

     Creutzfeldt-Jakob – human dementia


     Mad cow disease

Chronic wasting disease (CWD)


Human bones are not entirely made of calcium, but a mixture of chondroitin sulfate and hydroxyapatite, the latter making up 70% of a bone. Hydroxyapatite is in turn composed of 39.8% of calcium, 41.4% of oxygen, 18.5% of phosphorus, and 0.2% of hydrogen by mass. Chondroitin sulfate is a sugar made up primarily of oxygen and carbon.

According to scientists, eyes evolved around 540 million years ago as simple light detecting organs.

Mantis shrimp have much better color vision than humans (their eyes having 12 types of color receptors, whereas humans have only three), as well as ultraviolet, infrared and polarized light vision, thus having the most complex eyesight of any animal known. The eyes are located at the end of stalks, and can be moved independently from each other, rotating up to 70 degrees. Interestingly, the visual information is processed by the eyes themselves, not the brain.